Activities Key Terms Quizzes Art Chapter 2 Self-Quiz
Unit 1: Diversity of Life Understanding and Organizing the Diversity of Life Review
  1. Working from the assumption that all life is descended from a , systematists depict the relationships among organisms as an tree in which related groups are clustered by virtue of to form a lineage, and classify all organisms according to an evolutionary .
  2. The traditional classification system is the : compare similarities in , , and . This can be difficult and subject to change over time. Biologists increasingly use molecular data such as .
  3. 6 kingdoms: (Monera), , , , , . Where do viruses belong?
  4. 6 levels below Kingdom: Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, .
  5. Scientific name is genus and specific epithet, e.g. Homo sapiens : Kingdom , Phylum , Class , Order . Family , Genus , Species . What about Rosa gallica ? Or Rosa setigera ?
  6. Modern taxonomy now include many more levels. Above kingdom are 3 domains: , , . Other finer divisions also exist (do not memorize this): (e.g. Metazoa), (e.g. Deuterostomes), (e.g. Vertebrata), etc.
  7. Evolutionary taxonomy is being replaced by , which uses from a universal, to determine relationships shown on a cladogram . These features should show , distinctive traits not shared by other organisms.
  8. Shared features do not exhibit novel traits from a common ancestor and do not indicate relatedness.
  9. features do not indicate relatedness because they are not derived from a , but have developed independently due to to similar habitats.
  10. Many traditional taxonomic groups are not "real" groups according to cladistics. A "real group" consists of organisms descended from a and includes all of its descendents. In cladistics such a group is called a .
  11. Birds share a common ancestor with . Therefore, if reptiles are to be considered a , they must include .
  12. Biologists are able to identify precise evolutionary relationships through the use of and other molecular tools.

Activities Key Terms Quizzes Art Chapter 3 Self-Quiz
Unit 1: Diversity of Life Major Groups of Living Organisms Review
  1. All organisms evolved from a common . All cells belong to one of two basic types. cells have relatively simple structure and lack specialized internal . cells contain internal organelles.
  2. Bacteria and Archaea are prokaryotes, but remember they are not a "clade" because lack of organelles is not a from a . Prokaryotes are the most abundant organisms, and reproduce by splitting in two in a process called .
  3. Major parts of a prokaryotic cell include , , , and circular . An Eukaryotic cell contains internal such as , , and a which contains DNA.
  4. The kingdom Protista is not a "clade", and includes mostly single-celled, organisms such as algae. Protista are the most diverse eukaryotic organisms. Sexual reproduction first appeared in the kingdom and requires .
  5. The kingdom Plantae contains , eukaryotic organisms most of which are capable of producing food in the form of via . Thus plants are , also known as , in the food web. Plant photosynthesis also produces that enables aerobic life. Two important innovations in the Plantae are specialized cells organized into tissues such as the system and the seed, which provides the growing embryo with nutrients and protection.
  6. The kingdom Fungi is made up of eukaryotes that are mostly , but can also be or in the food web. The main body is a made of tissues called which are usually hidden and can grow to be very large. Fungi digest their food , and have cell walls made of .
  7. Lichens are a and unicellular living together as a single organism.
  8. The kingdom Animalia consists exclusively of multicellular eukaryotes that are usually motile and ingest their food; they are mostly in the food web. Most animals have specialized , , and .
  9. Acoelomates have no .
    • Porifera are without tissues, and can be reassembled when passed through a sieve.
    • Cnidaria include , , and . They possess specialized cells organized into that allow them to move their tentacles and sometimes swim.
    • Platyhelminthes, or exhibit bilateral symmetry and possess and including simple nervous, reproductive, and digestive/excretory systems. Tapeworms and flukes are .
  10. Coelomates possess a . In Protostomes the first opening of the blastula develops into the mouth.
  11. In Deuterostomes the first opening of the blastula develops into the anus. Vertebrates are a subphylum of Chordata and possess a hard
  12. Viruses are difficult to classify. They may have evolved from different organisms. Many organisms show cross-kingdom relationships.
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