Activities Key Terms Quizzes Art Chapter 18 Self-Quiz
Unit 3: Genetics Harnessing the Human Genome Review
  1. Genomics is the study of the entire of an organism and how it evolves over time.
  2. The human genome has been completely sequenced in in a competitive effort between the Human Genome Project (HGP) and the private Celera. The data is published in the public GenBank database.
  3. The human genome is now estimated to be to genes, and the sequencing of genes has enabled us to compare human with those of other species, providing further insight into relationships.
  4. Genetic using DNA can now identify large numbers of Single Nucleotide (SNPs) to assess an individual's risks for an entire set of diseases.

Activities Key Terms Quizzes Art Chapter 20 Self-Quiz
Unit 4: Evolution Evolution of Populations Review
  1. Evolution occurs at the population level when the and frequencies of the population change over time.
  2. In the absence of evolution, allele frequencies reach the equilibrium under five idealized conditions:
    • There is no change in allele frequencies due to .
    • There is no gene due to migration of individuals in or out of the population.
    • The population contains a number of individuals.
    • Members of the population mate .
    • Natural does not occur.
  3. Under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, the distribution of 2 alleles p and q in a population can be modeled by these equations:
    • The frequencies are described by p + q = 1, where p is the dominant allele frequency and q is the recessive allele frequency.
    • The frequencies are described by p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1.
  4. Mutation is the ultimate source of genetic variation. An example of a mutation is the resistance to pesticides in both Culex pipiens and Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes due to a change in one amino acid of an enzyme.
  5. Gene flow and can affect genetic diversity of populations.
  6. Genetic drift due to events can lead to fixation of alleles. Small populations that approach fixation for many alleles face a genetic where lack of genetic reduces their ability to to changing environments. An example is the , Felis concolor.
  7. Nonrandom mating such as sexual may affect the reproduction success of alleles.
  8. Natural selection shapes the evolution of populations in three ways.
    • selection favors one extreme form of the population.
    • selection favors both extremes of the population.
    • selection favors individuals near the population mean.
  9. Heterozygous advantage occurs when leave more offspring than homozygotes. An example is the cell anemia allele which confers some resistance to in heterozygotes.
  10. The ability of populations to evolve rapidly has serious implications for humans. Examples include pesticide in insects, antibiotic resistance in bacteria, and the elusive quest for an effective treatment against infection.
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